cromite concentrate to smelting

  • (PDF) Pelletisingsintering, prereduction, and smelting of

    To produce desirable sinter products required by the blast furnace smelting process, sintering tests of ore mixtures made from a low grade South African chromite concentrate (Cr2O3/FeO = 199) and

  • chromite refining and smelting

    smelting processes that are highly susceptible to deleterious constituents, such as chromite, in the feed concentrate Given the current rapid increase in energy costs over the recent past and forecast in future years, as well as the increasing chromite content of smelter feeds due to the higher proportion of UG2 chromititic PGM ore

  • (PDF) Solid state reduction of chromite concentrate

    The solid state reduction of a chromite concentrate from Northern Greece in the temperature range 11001470°C has been studied Ferrochromium produced by smelting chromite ores is an

  • v118n6a15 Fluxing of South African chromite ore with

    of each ore or concentrate is beyond the scope of this paper The typical compositions of some South African chromite ores are given in Table I (Geldenhuys, 2013) It is very important to point out that ores listed in Table I are just a few examples of what is used by the industry Several smelting operations rely on various other chromite

    Author: MW Erwee, IJ Geldenhuys, MB Sitefane, M Masipa
  • Kinetic Study on Smelting Reduction ofChromite Ore

    Smelting reduction ofchromite ore was studied in systems and conditions related to ferrochromium production in submerged arc furnace Dissolution ofchromite pellets or lumpy ore as well as reduction ofiron, chromium and silicon oxide were studied by immersing chromite samples in a slag melt in a graphite crucible Experiments were

  • OVERVIEW OF PGM PROCESSING Anglo American Platinum

    Union Chromite Recovery Plant PGM Concentrated Residues Tailings Purchased Concentrate Concentrate Furnace Matte Smelting Ore Anglo Converting Process (at Rustenburg) Our configuration differs from our competitors we have a broad footprint across all 3 Bushveld limbs Consequently, our integrated production system is more complex (ie13

  • Evaluation of net smelter returns in the South African PGE

    smelting and refining costs, through application of treatment and refining charges1 Penalty charges are applied to account for elements in the concentrate that affect process recoveries or costs For a copper concentrate this may take the form of: Deductions7 – The amount deducted from concentrate grades to calculate the metal paid for

  • Chromite Wikipedia

    OverviewPropertiesDistribution of depositsHealth and environmental impactsApplicationsGallery of chromite mineral specimensSee alsoExternal links

    Chromite is a crystalline mineral composed primarily of iron(II) oxide and chromium(III) oxide compounds It can be represented by the chemical formula of FeCr2O4 It is an oxide mineral belonging to the spinel group The element magnesium can substitute for iron in variable amounts as it forms a solid solution with magnesiochromite (MgCr2O4) A substitution of the element aluminium can also occur, leading to hercynite (FeAl2O4) Chromite today is mined particularly to make stainless steel through the production of ferroc

    Wikipedia CCBYSA 许可下的文字
  • Case Study: Chromite mining and processing

    Case Study: Chromite mining and health concerns 5 Chromium mining and processing In nature, chromium is found as chromite ore, composed of elemental iron, oxygen and chromium (FeOCr 2 O 3) 1,2 heavily in about a 700 m vicinity around the Countries with commercially significant chromite mines include Russia, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Turkey, the

  • An overview of Southern African PGM smelting

    An overview of Southern African PGM smelting RT Jones Mintek Private Bag X3015, Randburg, 2125, South Africa ABSTRACT The largest known platinum group metal (PGM) deposit in the world is the Bushveld Complex in South Africa, with the Great Dyke in Zimbabwe also being one of the biggest

  • chromite refining and smelting

    smelting processes that are highly susceptible to deleterious constituents, such as chromite, in the feed concentrate Given the current rapid increase in energy costs over the recent past and forecast in future years, as well as the increasing chromite content of smelter feeds due to the higher proportion of UG2 chromititic PGM ore

  • chromite refining and smelting

    Cromite Concentrate To Smelting Smelting Chromite Where the ore or concentrate must be Total Iron in Mineral Chromite and Ferrochrome Slags In both cases, it is important to have a good value for the chromiumtoiron ratio A typical chromite or chromite concentrate can range from less than 10 pct iron to over 20 pct iron

  • (PDF) Solid state reduction of chromite concentrate

    The solid state reduction of a chromite concentrate from Northern Greece in the temperature range 11001470°C has been studied Ferrochromium produced by smelting chromite ores is an

  • v118n6a15 Fluxing of South African chromite ore with

    of each ore or concentrate is beyond the scope of this paper The typical compositions of some South African chromite ores are given in Table I (Geldenhuys, 2013) It is very important to point out that ores listed in Table I are just a few examples of what is used by the industry Several smelting operations rely on various other chromite

  • Kinetic Study on Smelting Reduction ofChromite Ore

    Smelting reduction ofchromite ore was studied in systems and conditions related to ferrochromium production in submerged arc furnace Dissolution ofchromite pellets or lumpy ore as well as reduction ofiron, chromium and silicon oxide were studied by immersing chromite samples in a slag melt in a graphite crucible Experiments were

  • Commercialization of the ConRoast process

    The present smelting and base metals refining capacities in South Africa have a number of limitations and have not seen the use of a novel smelting process for many years There are limits to the levels of chromite that can be treated using existing furnace technology In addition to the limited smelting capacity, only the Anglo Platinum and Impala

  • OVERVIEW OF PGM PROCESSING Anglo American Platinum

    Union Chromite Recovery Plant PGM Concentrated Residues Tailings Purchased Concentrate Concentrate Furnace Matte Smelting Ore Anglo Converting Process (at Rustenburg) Our configuration differs from our competitors we have a broad footprint across all 3 Bushveld limbs Consequently, our integrated production system is more complex (ie13

  • Energy consumptions for Kell hydrometallurgical refining

    chromite), whereas UG2 concentrates have low sulphide and basemetal contents and higher chromite content Smelting of UG2 concentrate requires blending with Merensky or Platreef, and, as the proportion of UG2 increases, higher temperatures and power densities are required to keep the chromite in solution in the slag

  • Chrome Ores on Ferrochrome Smelting

    MAJOR SMELTING PARAMETERS USED TO PRODUCE ONE TON OF HCFeCr IN SAF USING DIFFERENT SA CHROME LUMP ORES B Composition of SA Chrome Lumpy Ores The selected chrome lumpy ores contains mainly Cr 2 O 3, FeO, SiO 2, MgO, Al 2 O 3 and small amount of CaO The range of chemical composition is 2943% of Cr 2 O 3, 2024% of FeO, 420% of SiO 2

  • An overview of Southern African PGM smelting

    An overview of Southern African PGM smelting RT Jones Mintek Private Bag X3015, Randburg, 2125, South Africa ABSTRACT The largest known platinum group metal (PGM) deposit in the world is the Bushveld Complex in South Africa, with the Great Dyke in Zimbabwe also being one of the biggest

  • KPMG commodity insights bulletin chromite

    When chromite, the mineral, is extracted from the earth’s mantle, it is referred to as chrome ore Chrome ore is crushed, screened, jigged into chrome concentrate and then smelted into ferrochrome Ferrochrome, with nickel, is then processed into stainless steel The processing of chromite is depicted in Figure 1 As chrome ore,

  • Ferrochromium from Domestic Lateritic Chromites SpringerLink

    Oct 30, 2012  As part of its effort to devise suitable technology for processing lowgrade domestic materials and recycling wastes, the US Bureau of Mines has evaluated the feasibility of smelting a chromite concentrate derived from residues generated by the processing of nickel and cobalt from domestic laterites The product sought was a highcarbon ferrochromium suitable for stainless and

  • Cost Of Chrome Smelting Plant, Chrome Ore Upgrading

    The result is a concentrate suitable for refining ,and tailings have no economic value tailings are the material left over from the ore processing facility after the chromite has been extracted from the ore Tailings will be managed over the longterm at the mine site in a tailings management area chromite ore beneficiation smelting plant

  • How to Recycle Magnesite Chrome in Copper Smelting Furnaces

    Aug 31, 2017  Chromite ore in combination with various quantities of magnesia is the primary constituent in basic refractories In 1975, about 300,000 tons of chrome refractories were consumed in this country The refractories are used as linings in steelmaking and copper smelting furnaces, rotary cement calciners and glassmaking tanks

  • chromite refining and smelting

    smelting processes that are highly susceptible to deleterious constituents, such as chromite, in the feed concentrate Given the current rapid increase in energy costs over the recent past and forecast in future years, as well as the increasing chromite content of smelter feeds due to the higher proportion of UG2 chromititic PGM ore

  • chromite refining and smelting

    Cromite Concentrate To Smelting Smelting Chromite Where the ore or concentrate must be Total Iron in Mineral Chromite and Ferrochrome Slags In both cases, it is important to have a good value for the chromiumtoiron ratio A typical chromite or chromite concentrate can range from less than 10 pct iron to over 20 pct iron

  • v118n6a15 Fluxing of South African chromite ore with

    of each ore or concentrate is beyond the scope of this paper The typical compositions of some South African chromite ores are given in Table I (Geldenhuys, 2013) It is very important to point out that ores listed in Table I are just a few examples of what is used by the industry Several smelting operations rely on various other chromite

  • Kinetic Study on Smelting Reduction ofChromite Ore

    Smelting reduction ofchromite ore was studied in systems and conditions related to ferrochromium production in submerged arc furnace Dissolution ofchromite pellets or lumpy ore as well as reduction ofiron, chromium and silicon oxide were studied by immersing chromite samples in a slag melt in a graphite crucible Experiments were

  • Chrome concentrate production processHenan Mining

    Chrome Tharisa Chrome products are produced from chromite containing ores, such as the Middle Group Chromitite layers of the Bushveld Complex The key drivers for the production of chrome are the ferrochrome and stainless steel industries Some 85% of all chrome produced is converted into ferrochrome by a smelting process

  • Electric Smelting Furnace of Ore 911 Metallurgist

    May 05, 2017  Smelting Chromite At Ohanga Lake, near the Canadian northern line in Ontario, the Chromium Mining Smelting Corporation has chromite averaging 17 percent chromic oxide and is concentrating it to over 40 percent The concentrate is railed to Sault Ste Marie, where the company has three electric furnaces making ferrochromium and other products

  • KPMG commodity insights bulletin chromite

    When chromite, the mineral, is extracted from the earth’s mantle, it is referred to as chrome ore Chrome ore is crushed, screened, jigged into chrome concentrate and then smelted into ferrochrome Ferrochrome, with nickel, is then processed into stainless steel The processing of chromite is depicted in Figure 1 As chrome ore,

  • v118n6a3 Reduction of Kemi chromite with methane

    of chromite concentrate powder in a closed, horizontaltube electric furnace One gram of Kemi chromite concentrate was reduced for various time intervals (10, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes) in controlled atmospheres of varying CH4H2 contents (10, 20, and 30 vol% CH4) Gas flow through the furnace was kept constant at 1 l/min The reduction

  • Processing of LowGrade Chromite Ore for Ferroalloy

    The lowgrade siliceous chromite ore from Ghutrigaon, Odisha, India, containing ~ 16% Cr2O3, with Cr/Fe ratio of 197 and ~ 55% of SiO2, does not find any use in metallurgical industry and hence considered as waste Mineralogical investigation indicates the presence of chromite and quartz as major minerals with minor fuchsite and kaolinite The beneficiation studies reveal that the product can

  • Potential Toxic Effects of Chromium, Chromite Mining and

    Chromite ore is mined, crushed and processed to produce chromite concentrate To create ferrochrome, chromite concentrate is combined with a reductant (coke, coal, charcoal or quartzite) in a high temperature submerged arc furnace or direct current arc furnace See Appendix 1 for resources about ferrochrome production processes ! Chromite ore

  • Metallurgical and Market Acceptance Test Work FPX Nickel

    The 2013 test work demonstrated that smelting Decar concentrates on a standalone basis, with the addition of a reductant and fluxing agents, produces a highgrade product of 35%50% nickel (the remainder being almost totally iron, plus minor chromite), compared to typical ferronickel products containing 15%40% nickel

  • WOA1 Carbothermic direct reduction of chromite

    The reduction of chromite ore or concentrate takes place at much lower temperatures (eg 1200 to 1400 °C) compared to the conventional smelting technologies, and the ferrochrome particles formed are segregated from the unwanted residual gangue and spinel

  • Improving the Quality of Ferruginous Chromite Concentrates

    The low chromiumtoiron ratio of chromite ores is an important issue in some chromite deposits The value of the chromite ore is indeed dictated in the market by its iron, as well as its chromium content In the present study, a chromite concentrate was reprocessed by gravity (spiral concentrator) and magnetic separation to enhance the chromiumtoiron ratio

  • Buffelsfontein Chrome Smelter Wikimapia

    This smelter is owned by International Ferro Metals Pelletising Sinter plant: This involves grinding the chromite concentrate in a ball mill, pelletising a mixture of concentrate, coke, fines and bentonite which acts as a binder, then heating the pellets in a steel belt sintering furnace In sintering, the pellets are heated to form strong bonds between the chromite grains to yield and

  • chromite refining and smelting

    Cromite Concentrate To Smelting Smelting Chromite Where the ore or concentrate must be Total Iron in Mineral Chromite and Ferrochrome Slags In both cases, it is important to have a good value for the chromiumtoiron ratio A typical chromite or chromite concentrate can range from less than 10 pct iron to over 20 pct iron

  • Chrome concentrate production processHenan Mining

    Chrome Tharisa Chrome products are produced from chromite containing ores, such as the Middle Group Chromitite layers of the Bushveld Complex The key drivers for the production of chrome are the ferrochrome and stainless steel industries Some 85% of all chrome produced is converted into ferrochrome by a smelting process

  • v118n6a3 Reduction of Kemi chromite with methane

    of chromite concentrate powder in a closed, horizontaltube electric furnace One gram of Kemi chromite concentrate was reduced for various time intervals (10, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes) in controlled atmospheres of varying CH4H2 contents (10, 20, and 30 vol% CH4) Gas flow through the furnace was kept constant at 1 l/min The reduction

  • Processing of Platinum Ores

    Cromite Spirals 41% Chromite concentrate 37% Chromite concentrate Tailings Dam Final Concentrate Thickener PGM Concentrate to Smelter 4 Stage Cleaning Attrition Scrubber Acid Rougher Concentrate Thickener Waste Rock Dump Circuit Design for the Kroondal Concentrator The following innovations have been incorporated:

  • Aspects of DC chromite smelting at Mintek figure skating

    Aspects of DC chromite smelting at Mintek CHROMIUM ALLOYS PRODUCTION AND OPERATION ASPECTS OF DC CHROMITE SMELTING AT MINTEKAN OVERVIEW lJ Geldenhuys Pyrometallurgy Division, Mintek Private Bag X3015, Randburg, 2125 email: [ protected]

  • Improving the Quality of Ferruginous Chromite Concentrates

    The low chromiumtoiron ratio of chromite ores is an important issue in some chromite deposits The value of the chromite ore is indeed dictated in the market by its iron, as well as its chromium content In the present study, a chromite concentrate was reprocessed by gravity (spiral concentrator) and magnetic separation to enhance the chromiumtoiron ratio

  • Potential Toxic Effects of Chromium, Chromite Mining and

    Chromite ore is mined, crushed and processed to produce chromite concentrate To create ferrochrome, chromite concentrate is combined with a reductant (coke, coal, charcoal or quartzite) in a high temperature submerged arc furnace or direct current arc furnace See Appendix 1 for resources about ferrochrome production processes ! Chromite ore

  • Buffelsfontein Chrome Smelter Wikimapia

    This smelter is owned by International Ferro Metals Pelletising Sinter plant: This involves grinding the chromite concentrate in a ball mill, pelletising a mixture of concentrate, coke, fines and bentonite which acts as a binder, then heating the pellets in a steel belt sintering furnace In sintering, the pellets are heated to form strong bonds between the chromite grains to yield and

  • LEVERAGING NEW SMELTING TECHNOLOGY AS PGM SECTOR

    Sep 26, 2008  One is to ensure the concentrate does not exceed 25% chrome content, but that is throwing the problem back upstream The other is the ConRoast process” The ConRoast process is based on the removal of sulphur by roasting, followed by smelting of the deadroasted concentrate in a DC arc furnace, adding a reductant and then using an ironbased

  • Closed nickel ore and concentrate smelting furnace

    Related Closed Nickel Ore And Concentrate Smelting Furnace Product Details Blast furnace is the shaft furnace of metallurgical equipmentBlast furnace is used for melting furnace burden(ore,sinter or pellet) that contains metal components,melting need to add air or happen in oxygenrich conditions,only do like this,we can get sulfur or furnace

  • PGM Ore Processing at Impala's UG2 Concentrator

    reef low in chromite were slowly being depleted while vast UG2 resources were still available Subsequently the decision was made to increase the capacity at the UG2 plant and at the same time attempt to improve recovery at acceptable chrome content in final concentrate This prompted initiation of the UG2 ore separation project 3

  • Chrome Ore Beneficiation Process Chromite Processing

    May 15, 2019  The dissociation degree of chromite monomer in the sample is 9511%, the magnetism can be used to separate the chromite from the nonmagnetic ores The gangue minerals, such as enstatite, tremolite, diopside, biotite, also have weak magnetism, affect the grade of magnetic concentrate It is better to separate it by using gravity separation

  • Smelting characteristics of fluxed chromite sinter and its

    Mar 18, 2016  Smelting characteristics of fluxed chromite sinter and its performance assessment in electric arc furnace to produce high carbon ferrochrome S Agarwal MEF Division, CSIRNational Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, , India Correspondence

  • Samancor Chrome Mines Mining Technology Mining News

    Samancor currently operates three flexible smelting systems with capacity in excess of 1Mt/y of ferrochrome at three sites The mines also feature six Submerged Arc Furnaces (SAF), a metal recovery plant, and a Pellet and Sintering Plant (PSP) Production In 2000, Samancor Chrome produced 37Mt of chromite and 106Mt of ferrochrome